How to Write a Hypothesis - Guide with Examples

Written by

Rickey Clarke

8 mins read
how to write a hypothesis

Working on your research project and looking for help with your hypothesis formulation? It is a common issue among new researchers.

They could not understand the mechanics of creating an effective hypothesis. This blog is for you and for every student who is looking for professional help.

Here, we have explained the steps to write a hypothesis plus some good examples to help you get started.

Let's begin!

What is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a statement that provides a possible explanation for an event or phenomenon. It is not a fact, but rather a proposed explanation that needs to be tested.

It is an educated guess that kicks start research and it is proved or disproved based on the obtained results. Also, it is an important part of a research paper as the researcher must draw a hypothesis to formulate his research plan.

When formulating your hypothesis, you will want to keep the following in mind:

  • The hypothesis should be falsifiable, meaning that it can be disproven
  • The hypothesis should be concise and direct
  • The hypothesis should be testable

Once you have formulated your hypothesis, you will want to design an experiment to test it.

If the results of your experiment support the hypothesis, then you can move on to the next step in your research project. If the results do not support the hypothesis, then you will need to go back and revise it.

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Here are the characteristics of a good hypothesis;

  • The hypothesis should be testable.
  • The hypothesis should be falsifiable.
  • The hypothesis should be concise and direct.
  • The hypothesis should be based on sound reasoning.

A good hypothesis will direct your research method and will help you in many ways.

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Types of Hypotheses

Research hypothesis can be classified into the types stated below:

  • Simple Hypothesis

    It explains a relationship and connection between a dependent and independent variable.

  • Complex Hypothesis

    This type of hypothesis analyzes the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

  • Directional Hypothesis

    The direction in which variables are expected to move to determine the connection between them is hypothesized by theory.

  • Furthermore, it explains the researcher's intellectual conviction to a particular outcome.
  • Non-directional Hypothesis

    It does not provide any indication of the direction or type of connection between the two variables. When there is no theory, to begin with, or when findings are contrary to previous research studies, a non-directional hypothesis is employed.

  • Associative and Causal Hypothesis

    The associative theory postulates how variables are connected. One variable changes and the other follows suit.

  • In contrast, a causal hypothesis asserts that manipulating the independent variable will lead to a change in the dependent variable as a consequence of changing the independent variable.
  • Null Hypothesis

    The conclusion of the sentence expresses a negative idea to back up the researcher's findings that there is no link between the two variables.

  • Alternative Hypothesis

    The hypothesis includes the relationship between the variables of the study and that the findings are relevant to the study's topic.

  • Empirical Hypothesis

    The experimental hypothesis is that one is put to use in a field. It's only an assumption during the formulation stage, but when it's approved as a test it becomes an empirical or operational hypothesis.

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How to Write a Hypothesis?

Now that you understand what a hypothesis is and what makes a good one, let's take a look at how to write one.

There are several steps involved in writing a good hypothesis:

  • 1. Ask a Question

    The first step in the scientific method is to form a question. Using the standard six questions, such as "who," "what," "where," "when," and "why," frame this query.

    Here are some examples;

    • How long does it take to grow carrots?
    • Why is it that the sky gets grayer earlier in the winter?
    • Where did the dinosaurs go?
    • How did we go from being monkeys?
    • What causes kids to be antsier on Friday afternoon?
    • What is the impact of sleep deprivation on motivation?
    • Why are IEP accommodations beneficial in schools?

    You want the question to be detailed and direct and it must also be researchable. When you know you can research your question from many perspectives, you can begin with preliminary research.

  • 2. Gather Some Initial Information

    It's time to gather information. This will include case studies and academic papers, as well as your own research and observations.

    Remember to explore your question from all angles. Don't be discouraged by conflicting data. As you do your homework, you'll undoubtedly encounter a lot of naysayers.

    That does not negate your hypothesis. In fact, you may utilize their findings as rebuttals and frame your study in a way that addresses these issues.

    For example, if you're thinking about the question: "How much sleep does it take to be productive?" you might come across studies with conflicting results on the issue of eight hours vs. six hours of sleep. These contradictory findings can assist you in generating your hypothesis.

  • 3. Develop a response to your question.

    After you've done your study, consider how you'll answer your question and defend your standpoint.

    Say that you asked the following question:

    What are the influences of sleep on motivation?

    When you begin to gather fundamental data and information, you'll discover that lack of sleep has a detrimental influence on learning. It decreases cognitive functioning and makes it more difficult to learn anything new.

    When you are fatigued, learning and putting out effort becomes more difficult. As a result, you may be less inclined to study.

    In addition, you discover that sleep has an impact on performance at some point. This research will help you answer your question.

    When you don't get enough sleep, it's more difficult to learn new things and create new memories. This makes learning more difficult, making you less likely to be interested.

  • 4. Formulate a Hypothesis

    It's time to come up with your hypothesis now that you have some idea of your question's answer.

    The following are some examples of good hypothesis formulations:

    • Variables that are relevant
    • The predicted outcome
    • Who or what is being researched?

    Remember that your hypothesis should be a statement rather than a question. It's an idea, proposal, or prediction. The following is an if/then structure for a research hypothesis:

    If a person gets fewer than eight hours of sleep, they will be less driven at work or school.

    This statement shows that;

    • a test subject - the person
    • the variables - sleep deprivation and motivation
    • the prediction - less sleep equals less motivation
  • 5. Refine Your Hypothesis to Find out What's Next

    While you may be able to complete your research hypothesis, some hypotheses will most likely be a correlation study or a comparison of two groups.

    In these circumstances, you should set forth the connection or distinction you anticipate finding.

    The following is one example of a hypothesis:

    When we sleep less than eight hours, it has a detrimental influence on our job and school motivation.

    A different hypothesis might be:

    Those that have only seven or fewer hours of sleep are less driven than those who have eight or more.

  • 6. Make a Null Hypothesis

    Depending on your study, you may need to do some statistical analysis on the data you collect.

    When creating a statistical hypothesis statement using the scientific method, it's critical to understand the distinction between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, as well as how to create a null hypothesis.

    • The standard null hypothesis (H0) is a hypothesis that claims that there is no difference or evidence for one. For the motivation example above, H0 would be that sleep hours have zero effect on people's motivation.
    • Different alternative hypotheses, often known as H1, are proposed in an attempt to explain the observed variation. The alternative hypothesis in this sleep hours scenario is that a person who gets six hours of sleep has less motivation than someone who receives eight hours of sleep.

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Hypothesis Examples

Here are some good and bad hypothesis examples;

Question Good Hypothesis Bad Hypothesis
How long do carrots take to grow? Carrots grown in deep soil will take longer to mature than those cultivated in shallow soil. Carrots can also be planted deeply in the ground. (There are no known outcomes.)
What causes the sky to darken earlier in the winter? The number of daylight hours varies due to the Earth's rotation. The day comes to an end. (This doesn't explain anything and what will be researched.)
What went wrong with the dinosaurs? We may learn more about the end of the dinosaurs by studying marine fossils discovered in the Arctic. Accordingly, when a comet struck Earth, these animals vanished. Extinction happened long ago. (This does not indicate what the study is about or provide obvious parameters for examining dinosaur history.)
How did we get from being monkeys to where we are now? Although humans are not descended from apes, they do share a common ancestor with them. Human evolution is a long process. (There are no clear factors to be studied or a prediction to be tested.)
Why are students more excitable on Fridays afternoons? Students are looking forward to the weekend, making them more active on Friday afternoon. Students are misbehaving. (This does not make it clear what is being tested or the variables.)
What is the impact of lack of sleep on motivation? People who get less than eight hours of sleep are less energized at work or school. Sleep is crucial. (While this may be true, it isn't establishing the parameters for the research.)
Why are IEP modifications useful in schools? If a student receives accommodations for a learning disability, he or she will do better in school. Accommodations assist students. (While this may be true, it isn't providing what is being studied or the variables.)

A hypothesis may seem a difficult task at first but by following the steps given in this blog, you can write yours successfully. If you need more help, you can contact us any time.

We are a 24/7 academic writing help and you can get help from our expert essay writer with any research project.